Sunday, December 14, 2008

Sandro Botticelli -- Florence 1445 - 1510

Sandro Botticelli, Spring, 1477 - 1482
tempera on wood 80 X 123 3/4 in., Uffizi, Florence
Produced under the supervision of the Humanist Marsilio Ficino for the Medici villa at Castello, Botticelli's great secular paintings stand at the heart of his output and represent the culmination of Florentine Neoplatonism. Painted for the young Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de Medici, a cousin Lorenzo the Magnificent, the paintings had the didactic purpose of inculcating and the taste for beauty.

Sandro Botticell, Birth of Venus 1884 -1486 tempera on wood, 72 3/4 X 112 1/2 in. Uffzi, Florence

Sandro Botticelli Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, Florence 1445 1510

A leading exponent of Florentine art at the last quarter of the fifteenth century, Botticelli is famous, above all, for his works commissioned by the Medici family and particularly for his large profane allegories. These reflect the tastes, of the cultural climate, and refined return to classicism of Lorenzo the Magnificent and Neoplatonic Florentine culture. This was the sophisticated, refined erudite, and serene period of the Italian Renaissance. During the life of Botticelli came in to close contact with other Florentine artists, and his training began in the workshop of Filippo Lippi, in the 1460's. When the latter moved to Spoleto in 1466. Botticelli became an assistant to Verrocchio, and thus came to know the master's other young pupils, including Perugino and Leonardo. The recurrent subject if Botticelli's early works was the Madonna and Child, which he repeated in numerous versions. In 1470 he painted the allegorical work Fortitude as part of a cycle of Virtues executed by Piero Pollaiolo (Uffizi, Florence). In 1472 he and his pupil Filippino Lippi were enrolled in the Florentine Painters' Guild. A series of portraits of the Medici made Botticelli the ruling family's favorite artist, as is demonstrated by the commission he received in 1475 for the great Adoration of the Magi, now in the Uffizi. In 1477 the so-called Spring marked the beginning of the cycle of great mythological allegories, probably painted for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici (a cousin of Lorenzo the Magnificent), the first great paintings on profane subjects drawn from classical antiquity. Regarded as one of the leading masters, Botticelli was summoned to Rome in 1482 and involved in the task of decorating the walls of the Sistine Chapel. He returned to Florence as the favorite painter of Lorenzo the Magnificent. For a decade Botticelli produced frescoes and altarpieces, as well as religious and secular paintings, that marked the end of the experimental stage of Humanism and the development of an extremely linear approach. In 1492 the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent and the moral revolution brought about by Savonarola had a striking effect on Botticelli's style. He used pale colors, his compositions became taut and dramatic, and an intense mysticism reappeared in the choice of subjects. This period of spiritual turmoil saw the artist's last masterpieces, produced on the eve of the new century, which almost anticipate Mannerism.

About the Author

Sefano Zuffi is the Italian art historian and the author of many articles and more than 30 books on art and artists. He has also written la Guida et Musei di Venezia (the guidebook for the Venice Museum). His major biography of the Venetian painter Titian was recently published in Italy. He is author of the commentaries accompanying three fine art volumes published in English by Barrons: Baroque Painting. Modern Painting, and Renaissance Painting.

Sunday, November 16, 2008

Tony Curtis -- Giclees of Montages Art

Presenting Tony Curtis
Giclees of Montages

"Hot Pink Marilyn (Fireworks)"

"Triple Self "

"Hollywood Favorites"

"Zing went the strings of my heart.
When I discovered these wildly sexy Giclees by
legendary actor, and artist Tony Curtis."
~ Art Diva of

The man behind the mask of one hundred and fifty different roles, spanning over fifty years, now reveals himself to be Tony Curtis, fine artist.Tony Curtis' incredible skill and versatility in the performing arts, is matched by his innate ability to create great beauty in fine art, reflecting the rich life of the artist, giving enormous pleasure to the collector.While his acting career continues unabated today, what happens to his enormous need to create when the cameras are off and the sound stages are silent at the end of the day?The same questioning and receptive mind that captures the subtle nuances of daily life, and later incorporates them into his film roles, has spent the last several decades storing sights and memories, collecting objects, posters, lobby cards, candid photos and movie stills that are now all coming together to form his brand new series of delightful, whimsical giclées of montages on canvas that virtually burst with all of the vitality and romantic charm that has characterized Tony Curtis' whole life.The glamour of the film world has left its mark on his visual images. Each film locale and co-star has provided him with new and different inspiration for his art work. Many works seem bigger than life, encompassing great visual concepts within the confines of the canvas.Tony Curtis' long-standing love affair with the beauty and glamour of Las Vegas has inspired the brilliantly conceived and colorful paintings and giclées of montages that he creates at his studio here.Extraordinarily successful exhibitions all over North America, Europe, and Asia, of Tony Curtis' paintings, assemblages, collages, and boxes have earned him tremendous acclaim as a highly sought after artist and a prominent place in many world famous public and private collections.MONTAGE (män-'täzh) Fr.The art or process of making a composite picture by bringing together into a single composition a number of different pictures, or parts of pictures, and arranging these by superimposing and or juxtaposing the images so that they form a blended whole while remaining distinct.GICLÉE (zhee-klay) Fr.Images are generated from high resolution digital scans and printed with archival quality inks onto various substrates, including canvas, providing tighter detail and better color accuracy than any other method of reproduction. Archived files will not deteriorate in quality as negatives and film inherently do. The quality of giclée prints rival traditional silver-halide and gelatin printing processes and are commonly found in art galleries and museums such as NY Museum of Modern Art and the Metropolitan Museum. Recent giclée auction prices include $9,600 for a giclée by Chuck Close, $10,800 for a giclée by Annie Leibovitz, and $22,800 for a giclée by Wolfgang Tillman.

Tamara de Lempicka - Art Deco Drama

Photograph of Tamara
de Lempicka.
ca. 1935
by M. Camuzzi,
courtesy of Museum
Masters International
(c) Tamara Art

New York, NY, USA

Kizette in Pink, 1926, oil on canvas

Portrait of Mrs. Bush, 1929, oil on canvas

Tadeusz de Lempicki unfinished

Girl in Green, oil painting on canvas

Adam and Eve, 1032, oil on wood panel

Portrait of Miss Poum Rachou, 1933
oil painting on canvas

Tamara de Lempicka (1898 - 1980)
Portrait de Mrs. Bush
oil on canvas

Lot Description
Tamara de Lempicka (1898-1980) Portrait de Mrs. Bush signed 'T. DE LEMPICKA.' (upper right) oil on canvas 48 1/8 x 26 in. (122.3 x 66 cm.) Painted in 1929

Lot Description
Tamara de Lempicka (1898-1980) Portrait de Mrs. Bush signed 'T. DE LEMPICKA.' (upper right) oil on canvas 48 1/8 x 26 in. (122.3 x 66 cm.) Painted in 1929
Pre-Lot Text
Mrs. Rufus Bush, New York (acquired from the artist, 1929).By descent from the above to the present owners.
K. de Lempicka-Foxhall, Passion by Design: The Art and Times of Tamara de Lempicka, New York, 1987, pp. 96 and 99-101.A. Blondel, Tamara de Lempicka: Catalogue raisonné, 1921-1979, Lausanne, 1999, pp. 52 and 212, no. B.126 (illustrated in color, p. 212).L. Claridge, Tamara de Lempicka, A Life of Deco and Decadence, New York, 1999, pp. 164-167.
Lot Notes
Tamara de Lempicka had arrived at her mature signature manner by the end of the 1920s, and her career was at its peak. Combining elements drawn from French Cubism, Purism and Neo-Classicism, as well as her own study of Italian Mannerist masters, and showing her awareness of such contemporary realist trends such as Neue Sachlichkeit in Central Europe, Lempicka synthesized her own boldly cosmopolitan classical-realist style. It was the perfect manner for the liberated assertiveness and opulence of the Parisian post-war années folles, the fabled Jazz Age. Her paintings were aggressively modern-looking, and their appeal to the new social elite of her day was no doubt due in large part to their proud and glowing sensuality, in which physical beauty was emblematic of purposeful self-confidence, personal empowerment and success. The urbane and coolly polished surfaces in her pictures mirrored the social ideals of this well-heeled and influential class, which did not hesitate to pursue its passions, but had the good taste to moderate them through the exercise of accomplished formality, self-discipline and dedicated professionalism. Lempicka became one of the most sought-after portraitists of her day, rivaling Kees van Dongen, and she could accept or refuse commissions as she saw fit.The present owners of this portrait recall their mother, Joan Jeffery, whom it depicts, describing how the commission came about. She and her fiancée, Rufus T. Bush, were strolling down a Paris street and saw an extraordinary painting by Lempicka in a gallery window. They entered the gallery and were intent on buying the painting on the spot. Mr. Bush then had the idea of commissioning the artist to paint Miss Jeffery's portrait as a wedding present for his bride-to-be. Lempicka's daughter Kizette (op. cit., pp. 99-101) continues the story. Bush telephoned the artist and announced his intention, Lempicka told him to come right over; she would be soon leaving for a dinner engagement. The young couple arrived fifteen minutes later, and after a brief interview, Lempicka agreed to the commission and stated that she could start very soon. Bush pointed out it could not be done in Paris; his fiancée was due to return to America very shortly. He wanted Lempicka to come to New York and paint her there.Lempicka signed a contract with Bush on the spot, stating that she would arrive in New York on October 14. She charged her usual rate, but when advised by her dinner partner that evening that living expenses in New York would quickly consume her fee, she wrote to Bush asking to renegotiate the payment terms of the contract. Bush agreed without protest to her new fee, which was four times the amount she had previously signed to.Joan Jeffery was then 19 years old. She was the granddaughter of Thomas B. Jeffery, an automobile manufacturer whose company in Kenosha, Wisconsin, produced the first Ramblers during the early 1900s. Rufus T. Bush was 21, and had been studying at Oxford; his father was Irving T. Bush, who in 1900 constructed the Bush Terminal railroad yards on the Brooklyn waterfront to service his own 200-acre industrial park. In 1916-1918 Irving T. Bush built the 29-storey Bush Tower at 130 West 42nd Street to house his company offices; it was regarded for more than a decade as a model for smaller midtown skyscrapers.Lempicka sailed on the liner Paris and arrived on the appointed date. Two Rolls-Royces were waiting at the dock to take the artist and her luggage to the elegant Hotel Savoy. Lempicka wanted to begin work right away, but the Bushes, now married, told her the first order of business was for her to accompany them to the dressmaker Hattie Carnegie, to order the clothes that Mrs. Bush would wear for her portrait. Mrs. Bush closely followed the artist's suggestions, and chose a tailored, full-length red evening coat, with a black skirt hemmed fashionably at the knee.In preparation for her commission, Lempicka made at least two drawings of Mrs. Bush (Blondel, nos. A. 127 and 129). The artist was deeply impressed by the sleek and towering shapes of Manhattan's skyscrapers, which represented for her the ultimate in modernity. Lempicka made several studies of midtown buildings (fig. 1); the last became the source for the background in the present painting. She continued to use skyscrapers as backdrops for portraits she later painted in Europe.Lempicka soon ran into an unanticipated difficulty as she began to paint Mrs. Bush. Her sitter would receive visitors as she posed, and their conversation and champagne-sipping distracted the painter. Lempicka even threatened to return to Paris. Kizette, drawing on letters her mother sent to her from New York, recounted: "But they looked at her so contritely that she couldn't resist them, and she said, 'I will try the American way.' Every day now, she [the artist] wrote, people came, and they all sat around and drank and talked while she painted away. When the painting was done, she wrote that she thought it one of her best portraits" (ibid.).The Bushes were married for only a few years, and when they were divorced, Mrs. Bush placed her portrait in storage, together with other belongings, before moving to Greece, where she later met her second husband. The portrait remained hidden away for almost sixty years, when her daughter read about it in Kizette's book and then located it in storage. Blondel has called this portrait a "masterpiece," and remarked: "This anecdote confirms that, undoubtedly, Lempicka's best works were destined to spend a certain lapse of time sheltered from light!" (op. cit., p. 52) Previously unexhibited and in its near pristine state, Lempicka's Portrait de Mrs. Bush is offered here by the sitter's heirs.

"Madonna and Jack Nicholson are collectors of the
tempetuous art work of 20th-century artist Tamara de Lempicka.
Born Tamara Gurwi-Gorska in Moscow on May 16, 1898,
a privileged infant. Lempicka's life of extravagant excesses:
remained her values and are said to have tarnished the tempetuous
talent that was hers to command."

~ Art Diva of

Sunday, September 28, 2008

Maurice Utrillo - Oil Painting Authentication

Chateau de Blois
by Maurice Utrillo
b. 1883 Monmarte
quarter Paris, France

Suburban Street Scene
by Maurice Utrillo
b. 1883 Montmarte
quarter Paris, France

Marizy Sainte-Genevieve
by Maurice Utrillo
b. 1883 Montmarte
quarter Paris, France.

I received an email the other day with this question:
How can I identify a "real" Maurice Utrillo?

This is my response to the query:

The authenticity of a Maurice Utrillo oil painting, is best evaluated by a fine art appraiser. Many copy artists can successfully copy the style of great works of art. But many factors come into play such as the forensics; the age of and composition of oil paint, canvas, and signature of the artist when authenticating an original work of art; such as a Maurice Utrillo.

To detect or confirm fraudulent art, the modern expert has at his or her command, in addition to the aesthetic and critical criteria brought to bear, a wide array of scientific aids. These include standard chemical analysis; dating (of organic materials) by measuring the residual radioactivity of carbon 14; and examinations made with the use of optical instruments, X rays, and infrared red and ultraviolet light.

Maurice Utrillo is one of the most copied artists. Museums and collectors prefer authentic works - i.e. works that were produced during the artists life by the artist - authenticity is potentially a problem in every art transaction.

Since many of his Utrillo's oil paintings are out of reach for many art enthusiasts; hand painted oil reproductions remain a viable and affordable solution.

~ Art Diva of

Sunday, September 7, 2008

Frans Hals - "The Laughing Cavalier"

Frans Hals
1580 - 1666 b. Antwerp,
"The Laughing Cavalier"

"Genius lies not in having new ideas, but being
possessed by the idea that what has already
been said is not enough."

~ Eugene Delacroix

"The Laughing Cavalier" (1624) is a famous painting by the Baroque artist Frans Hals. The current title is a Victorian invention; the subject does, in fact, sport an enigmatic smile, (perhaps Hals answer to the Mona Lisa?). The composition is robust, and flamboyant all at once. The gorgeous silk costume, on close inspection reveals long, quick brushstroke technique. The fame of this painting is accredited to the artist's skill at painting the intricate lace of the costume; and that the glaring eyes eerily seem to follow the viewer from every angle. The identity of the young man is unknown, and originally was called "Portrait of a Young Man".

~ Art Diva of

Frans Hals was an extraordinary Dutch portrait painter of the 17th century. During his career, his art went through several changes as things in his life changed. He is most known for the freedom and looseness in which he painted.

Frans Hals was the son of a clothworker and a local girl, both from Mechelen. He was born in 1580. When Hals was young, they moved to Haarlem in the Netherlands where he spent the rest of his life. Hals only left Haarlem once, for a visit to Antwerp.

It is not known what happened in the first 25 to 30 years of Hals' life. In 1610, he joined the Guild of St. Luke of Haarlem, which registered artists as masters. Shortly after this, he married Annetje Harmensdochter Abeel. They had two children together but she died in 1615. Two years after that, he married Lysbeth Reyniers and had eight children with her. Out of Hals' eight sons, five of them became painters!

Hals was a student of Carel Van Mander, a painter and poet. Together, they started a painting academy in Haarlem. The best of Hals' early works is a painting called "Banquet of Officers of the Civic Guard of St. George at Haarlem". It was painted with a very free brushstroke that is unlike anything of its time. Looking at this painting can also give you a sense of the relationships between the figures. This is incredible because nobody else painted like this then. All of Hals' early works have a jovial spirit to them. Some of his most popular paintings during this time include "The Merry Company", "Peeckelhaering", "The Merry Drinker", "Malle Babbe" and "Gypsy Girl". In his paintings, he seems to have captured a moment in time.

As Hals grew older, the joviality of his paintings began to disappear. After he reached the age of forty, all of his subjects seemed to have sadness in their faces. Some of his paintings during this time are "Man with Arms Crossed", "The Laughing Cavalier", "Portrait of Isaac Abrahamszoon Massa", "Pieter van den Broecke", "Willem van Heythuyzen" and "Nicolaes Hasselaer". During the period between 1630 and 1650, Hals became very popular and painted more than 100 single portraits and six group portraits. In 1644, Hals became an officer of the Guild of St. Luke.
Frans Hals lived to be very old and as he got into his older age, his paintings really showed how he could portray the human character. After 1650, he didn't get as many commissions and was often harassed by family problems. The commissions he did get were not enough to support him financially and because of this, he had to auction off his possessions. In 1662, his right to assistance was seen and he started getting a yearly pension.

During Hals' old age, his work seemed to show that simply being a living person is enough. His themes became less vivid and less intense and much simpler. He even started painting in mostly blacks and whites. One of his most popular paintings during this time is "Governors of the Old Men's Home at Haarlem". This painting is actually two portraits, one of a group of men and another of a group of women. In these portraits he shows that life does not go on forever. Eventually everyone will die. Hals actually lived at this Old Men's Home of the painting.

Frans Hals was a one of a kind artist. He was different than anyone of his time. Because he was so unique, he did not leave behind many followers, unlike most artists. He did influence Adriaen Brouwer and Edouard Manet though. Hals died in 1666.

Michael Russell

Saturday, September 6, 2008

Pieter Bruegel - "The Harvesters"

Pieter Bruegel
1525 - 1596
b. Netherlands

The Harvesters
1565, Oil on wood
Metropolitan Museum
of Art, New York

Bruegel is the most deceptive of the old masters; his work looks so simple, yet is infinitely profound. The Harvesters is one of a series of paintings representing the months. Five of the series remain, and in Vienna, you can view three of them on one long wall in the Kunsthistorisches Museum (which is lucky enough to own another eleven of Bruegel's paintings, representing nearly a third of his surviving works). Seeing the three in all of their majesty - each a world in itself - made me doubt Bruegel's wisdom in attempting a series. Each one is overwhelming, though it is easier to feel its impact than to explain it.

The Harvesters is basically, I think, a visual meditation on the near and the far. The near is the harvesters themselves - painted as only Bruegel can paint. He shows us real people: the man slumped with exhaustion, or intoxication; the hungry eaters; the men finishing off their work before their noontime break. Yet he caricatures them just slightly. He sees a woman with grain-like hair, and women walking through the fields like moving grain stacks. He smiles, but he also sighs. There is not a sentimental hair on Bruegel's paintbrush, but nobody has more compassion for the harsh life of the peasant. His faces are those of people who are almost brutalized - vacant faces with little to communicate.

He sets this "near" in the wonder of the "far": the rolling world of corn and wood, of small hills spreading in sunlit glory to the misty remoteness of the harbor. Into this distance, the peasants disappear, swallowed up. They cannot see it, but we - aloft with the artist - can see it for what it is: the beautiful world in which we are privileged to live. He makes us aware not just of space, but of spaciousness - an immensely satisfying, potential earthly paradise. No other landscape artist has treated a landscape with such intellectual subtlety, yet Bruegel states nothing. He simply stirs us into receptivity. Sister Wendy Beckett's analysis of Bruegel's "The Harvesters"

New depth, meaning and appreciation of the art
of Bruegel is discovered; each time I visit the works
of Pieter Bruegel's oil paintings.

~ Art Diva of

All About Oil Painting Reproductions

Peter Paul Ruben's
"Battle of the
A copy of
Leonardo da Vinci's
"The Battle of

Who Buys Fine Art Oil Painting Reproductions?

Serious art collectors, art enthusiast’s of all ages, art dealers, corporations, hoteliers, the government, interior decorators, home builders, restaurateurs, and just about any one would like to own a famous work of art. Fine art oil reproductions, can make your make dream of owning the painting you love come true. Beautiful oil paintings of famous-masterpieces from throughout history and from around the world, are available to discerning devotees of art at the click of a link. Fine art hand painted oil painting reproductions, are the definitive answer for art lovers everywhere who would like to own, a distinctive work of art. Now you can commission a priceless work of art as viewed and displayed in museums, or priced in the millions of dollars, at an affordable price.

Growing Public Demand of Oil Painting Reproductions Online

Beautiful fine art oil painting reproductions are an ever increasing source of e-commerce popularity for purchase on the Internet. Buying or commissioning fine art oil paintings online is safe, and convenient for you to view and order a painting, of your choice. Now you can view all genres of art, artists, history and information in the privacy of your home or office, 24/7.

Major Methods Used to Reproduce Fine Art Reproductions

Fine art reproduction isn’t a new process. It has been popular since the 18th Century. Reproductions have allowed artists to share their vision, artistic expression and communicate their ideas to a wide and diversified audience. Reproductions of famous sculpture, drawings and primarily paintings have afforded art lovers an alternative to owning an original work of art or a collection of art, otherwise not within their reach.

In the past, original works of art were created on leather, wood, canvas, stone, ivory and metal, and many of these works still survive today. Unfortunately, many works of art have not escaped the erosion of time, elements, lack of technical expertise, the proclivities of war and errant care. Reproductions were and still are in inevitable and necessary advent as they serve to ensure the longevity of an artists work.

Can A Copyists Be Considered Artists?

The Great Master Artists were Among the First to Create Art Reproductions.

Examples of Master Class Copyists, such as Michelangelo, Andrea del Sarto, Rembrandt, Rubens, Goya, Turner, Delacroix, Degas and other distinguished copyists, are but a few of the famous who are proof that copyists can indeed be artists in their own right.

Examples of Master Class copyists defined:

Andrea del Sarto’s copy of his Raphael’s portrait of Pope Julius II does not lack the quality of the original.

Rembrandt’s copy of Holbein’s drawing of an English lady, has not been made to resemble the original as closely as possible.

Ruben’s copy of his Leonardo’s Battle of Anghiari does not show an over careful halting line and soggy treatment of form.

Goya’s copy, or adoption, of Flaxman’s outline does not show lines of any less free and sure than from the work he is stealing.

Thus we may ascertain that not all copies and their attributes of reproductions are created equal even by the great master artists:

- Of the same quality as our model
- Not necessarily to resemble the original as closely as possible
- Free of halting lines and soggy forms
- Contains lines as free and sure as those set down by an artist in the freshness of creation or observation .

About Famous Artist’s Signature Palettes:

Famous artists palettes are used today for the creation of Oil Reproductions.
The same Palette of Hans Hals and Rembrandt van Rijn are used today.

The colors of Frans Hals palette were/are:
Flake white
Yellow ochre
Red ochre
Charcoal black

Rembrandt’s palette was similar with exception of the addition of
sienna’s and his umbers.

Properties of Pigments Known to be used by the Old Masters

Lead (Flake) White
Yellow Ochre an opaque pigment. It is one of the artist’s basic colors employed in every culture and civilization since prehistoric times.
Chrome Yellow basic lead chromate . Chromate pigments have a tendency to turn brown sulpher in the atmosphere, will react with other pigments and may turn green on contact with on exposure to sunlight. there has been no necessity for artists to use chrome yellow for the past 125 years.
Raw Sienna a brownish-yellow Earth Color obtained from natural clay containing iron and manganese. Raw sienna is semi opaque and has more subtlety of color than yellow w ochre in tints with white.

Red Ochre
Burnt Sienna
Vermillion (Cinnabar)
Raw Umber
Burnt Umber
Terre Verte (green Earth)
Genuine Ultramarine (Lapis Lazuli)
Ivory Black

A Rose by Any Other Name Would Still Smell as Sweet

Reputable online e-commerce websites art dealers and galleries are knowledgeable and will help with your questions. It certainly is worth your time, to explore the various websites online to get a sense of a companies, product, guarantees, price points and value.

You get what you pay for. An oil reproduction of a (hand painted) Rembrandt oil reproduction that sells cheaply at one site and a (hand painted) Rembrandt oil painting reproduction that sells at a higher price on another site will not necessarily be of the same quality. If quality is of great importance to you, it is worth investing more money for a high-quality oil painting reproduction.

The Care and Preservation of Oil Paintings

Oil paintings can be maintained for years of use and enjoyment provided that some basic care and attention is given to their preservation. The first step in the care of collections is to understand and minimize or eliminate conditions that can cause damage. The second step is to follow basic guidelines for care, handling and cleaning.

Causes of Damage and Guidelines for Care of Oil Paintings:

The primary cause of damage to oil paintings is the storage or display of paintings in inappropriate environments. This includes display or storage in areas of extreme temperatures or light and dark.

The fascination of collecting beautiful objects goes back to the first person who admired a beautiful shell, or pebble found on a beach and kept it.

Questions about oil painting reproductions?
Contact me, I'm here to help.

~ The Art Diva of

Thursday, August 28, 2008

Ivan Sherman - Whimsical Art

Ivan Sherman

Art Created from
Recycled Corrugated

Still Life as Architecture
Acrylics, hand-cut corrugated cardboard
3' 6" X 5' 8" X 4"

Quite unexpectedly I found the whimsical art of Ivan Sherman, while searching for new artists. Ivan Sherman's fresh view of architecture as "art form", in terms of corrugated craft; is nothing less than a stupendous treat. It's worth your time to explore Ivan's treasure trove of Love Notes, stationery, announcements, and art prints. He is sure to please inquisitive, art lovers both near and far.

~ Art Diva of


Corrugated Home Decor was the embryo from which Ivan’s large corrugated constructions evolved. The pieces on this site are original limited editions, laboriously constructed by hand. They are truly unique and very beautiful. The wall sconces were once electrified, but will not be sold that way. The hanging shades should be professionally wired. Pieces should be examined in person and prices worked out off line.Click on thumbnails for larger image.


Ivan started recycling used corrugated boxes into whimsical works of art several years ago, inventing a technique of layering concentric triangles and squares of cut corrugated, much like tramp art. The order and balance imposed by the medium gives his work a sense of peace and tranquility, while unexpected flourishes and delightful use of color makes his work fun to look at. He set his goal at making each piece uniquely different, repeating tricks and techniques only when necessary and always coming up with a new twist on his medium. In this way his body of work encompasses his entire artistic background, from that of a representational painter, and including his early years as an art director on fashion accounts, through his whimsical children\'s book illustration, to his history as an award winning designer, right on through to the joy he takes designing and working with typography.

All images copyright Ivan Sherman 2005 An icompendium Site

Georges de La Tour, "The Fortune Teller"

The Fortune Teller probably 1630s
Georges de La Tour, French,
b. 1593–d. 1652, Oil on canvas;
40 1/8 x 48 5/8 in., Rogers Fund, 1960

I vividly recall at a very young age, viewing "The Fortune Teller" for the first time; at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The unexpected surprise of the painting, won me over forever. The presentation, the aesthetic detail, the execution and pure audacity of subject, captivates. It is the embodiment of a Primal Scream, waiting for someone to yell.... STOP! The influences of both Michelangelo and Caravaggio, probably via his Dutch followers, and the genre scenes of cheats and beggars clearly derive from the Dutch Caravaggisti.

~ Art Diva of

About "The Fortune Teller"

While an old gypsy crone tells his fortune, a naive youth is robbed by her accomplices, a subject popular among Caravaggesque painters throughout Europe in the seventeenth century. La Tour's painting can be interpreted as a genre or theatrical scene, or as an allusion to the parable of the prodigal son. It has been variously dated from about 1620 to as late as 1639. The inscription includes the name of the town where La Tour lived, Lunéville in Lorraine.

Highly successful in his lifetime as a painter in Lorraine whose work was also known and admired at the court of Louis XIII, Georges de La Tour was virtually forgotten after his death. His work first returned to public attention in 1934 in an exhibition in Paris of the "Painters of Reality in France," when a group of paintings reasonably attributed to him seemed the strongest and most personal statement of interests similar to Caravaggio and his followers, yet so distinct as to be compared to such different artists as Nicolas Poussin and Jan Vermeer. Since then further discoveries have been made, more paintings have been added to the number believed to be surely by his hand, and his work continues to exert a wide appeal, but fundamental questions about his life as an artist remain unanswered and perhaps always will.

La Tour was born in Vic-sur-Seille, the small capital of the bishopric of Metz. He was married in 1618 in Lunéville, the summer capital of the duchy of Lorraine, and by 1620 he seems to have had an active studio there. Lunéville remained the center of his life; baptismal records establish the birth of nine children between 1618 and 1636, and other documents record the interest of successive patrons in his work. Two paintings were commissioned early in his career (1623/1624) by the reigning Duke of Lorraine; in 1633 he is mentioned as having the title of Painter to the King (Louis XIII); in the early 1640s the French governor of Lorraine ordered that several of La Tour's paintings be presented to him by the town of Nancy; and after 1644 La Tour is described as the official painter to the town of Lunéville. In 1648 La Tour was listed among the founding members of the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture. Documents of payment bear witness to his continued activity in Lorraine until his death early in 1652.
Unanswered Questions

While these archival notices suggest the nature and extent of La Tour's work, there are significant gaps in the records, and it is not easy to correlate the chronology of his paintings with the factual evidence of his life. The signatures of some of the signed paintings are doubtful; different versions exist of paintings described only by title in documents; and some paintings may be copies of now-lost works. There are, in brief, many problems of connoisseurship which will continue to be debated.

The main questions about La Tour's life focus on the time before his marriage in 1618 and the years between 1639 and 1643, when there are no records of his presence in Lunéville. Did he travel to Italy as a young artist or journey to the Netherlands and encounter Italianate ideas in Utrecht? Was he in Paris in the late 1630s and early 1640s, and did he perhaps make a second journey from there to the Netherlands? In Lunéville was he close to the leaders of the current religious revival?

His Works

Whatever the answers to these questions, the primary documents will remain his own paintings. The artist's originality is apparent in his earliest signed painting, The Cheat (1625). The subject of a group of card players, long popular in the Netherlands as well as with Caravaggio and his followers in Italy, is presented with a startling dignity and clarity, showing La Tour's ability to select, simplify, and generalize. The four figures are painted thinly but with absolute precision; handsome costumes and the accessories of the game accent the broad, simple forms presented in a strong, natural light.

With very few exceptions, all of La Tour's paintings after this early date are night scenes, largely dependent on the highly expressive use of a source of light within the painting. Sometimes the source - a candle, torch, or lantern - is partially or completely concealed by a hand, a figure, or an object; sometimes the light flares out brilliantly against the surrounding darkness. In every case light is central to the formal construction of the paintings.

Scholars differ radically in the dates they assign to individual works by La Tour, but they generally agree that he developed gradually and consistently from the naturalism of The Cheat through the greater breadth and concentration of paintings focusing on one or two figures seen at night, as in Job and His Wife and St. Joseph, to the absolute distillation of forms in the late paintings grouped about the Denial of St. Peter (1651) and St. Sebastian Mourned by St. Irene.
None of La Tour's paintings involves more than a few figures; they are shown in simple, stable groupings arranged close to the picture plane in a space defined by light. The range of colors is limited to a few tones: warm tans, copper, and brick-red hues contrast with small passages of white or light yellow against dark grounds. Working with a few formal elements, La Tour achieved results that are suggestive through their very economy. His figures are quiet but not rigid; an atmosphere of silence and permanence emanates from his work. All his paintings, whatever the subject, seem profoundly religious ones, interpreted by a probing, serious, and sensitive mind.

Further Reading
S. M. M. Furness, Georges de La Tour of Lorraine, 1593-1652 (1949), is an enthusiastic if somewhat personal study of the artist that includes the most important documentation. La Tour's place in French art of the 17th century can best be studied in Anthony Blunt, Art and Architecture in France, 1500-1700 (1954; 2d ed. 1970).

Sunday, August 24, 2008

Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn

Simon Schama's analysis of Rembrandt's
"The Feast of Belshazzar" Text from Simon Schama,
"Rembrandt's Eyes": Rembrandt van Rijn,
The Feast of Belshazzar c. 1635, Oil on canvas
Jan Harmensz. Krul, the poet and dramatist who sat for his portrait by Rembrandt, published works attacking the lust for the high life and warning of the consequences. So perhaps it was for a like-minded client, who wanted to be reminded in the most spectacular manner of the contingency of worldly power and riches, that Rembrandt painted his sensational Belshazzar's Feast in 1635. The story, from Daniel, chapter 5, had traditionally been invoked as a cautionary tale against the habit of excessively sumptuous feasts... In Rembrandt's painting, there is even more gold than in the Danae, which was painted at about the same time. But this gold comes to its history not as a blessing but as a curse; not as radiance but as a kind of leprous contamination, covering the King's ornate costume, shining ominously from the vessels seized by the Babylonian prince from the Temple in Jerusalem and desecrated as his banqueting plate.

The Bible describes Belshazzar drinking before "a thousand of his lords." To suggest the immensity of a vast hall, Rembrandt might well have reverted to his older style, with crowds of small figures packed into a cavernous space. But by isolating a few exemplary figures, including the King himself, and pushing them suffocatingly close to the edge of the picture space, Rembrandt actually manages to increase the sense of ominous claustrophobia. This is a party with no emergency exit.

It's also a very Utrecht-looking Babylon. Rembrandt has gone to the "Caravaggisti" - van 'Baburen, ter Brugghen, and Honthorst - for his pagan revellers: the King's "princes, wives, and his concubines." The plumed and pearled courtesan seen at the extreme left sits silhouetted against the garish brightness, her stillness (as in the case of the hunched figure seen from the rear in the Storm on the Sea of Galilee) pointing up the agitated stupefaction of the rest of the company. The shadowy woman at left in Rembrandt's preparatory "dead-color" monochrome fingers her recorder and eyes the rest of us and is likewise extracted from the basic repertoire of the half-sexy, half-sermonizing Utrecht artists. But the velvety vermilion gown and naked shoulders of the woman at right leaning away from the vision and letting the wine spill from the mouth of the golden flagon comes directly from the lushest passages of high Italian Renaissance painting, specifically from a Rape of Europa by Veronese in the Ducal Palace in Venice, a copy of which Rembrandt saw in the Amsterdam collection of his patron Joan Huydecoper.

Everything else, though, is the product of Rembrandt's own pictorial operatics, especially the hand-play, which, even more than in the Abraham, is crucial to the story. Belshazzar's gesture of horror, as if pushing away the phantom writer, is the mirror image of both Danae's raised arm of greeting, especially at its originally lower angle, and of Abraham's arm, poised for the kill. The most powerful action (other than the "moving fingers" themselves) occurs along the parallelogram formed by Belshazzar's right hand resting on the golden dish, the elaborately painted finery of his turban, his outstretched left hand, and the scarlet sleeve and hand of the serving girl. The painting (like many of these histories) has been cut down in size, and the surviving version in the London National Gallery needs to be imagined rotated slightly clockwise to register the full effect of collapse, figures and wine falling from their proper place.

The painting is also one of Rembrandt's most flamboyant exercises in representing the affecten, or passions, written in the drop-jawed astonishment of the banqueters and especially in the face of Belshazzar himself, shot through with spectral illumination, his eye (like the disciples at Emmaus) almost popping from its socket. Faithful to the biblical message, Rembrandt has gone all out to suggest the perishability of things: precious metals, the pleasures of appetite, the longevity of empires. To accomplish this, he needs, paradoxically, to turn still-life painter, beginning with an unusually dark brown underpainting against which the surface textures of both solid and liquid objects - the cascade of wine, the bursting figs and grapes (emblems of debauch), the richly brocaded cloth - could be rendered with sparkling sensuousness. Not for the last time, Rembrandt turns artisan, like his friend the silversmith Lutma, whose elaborately punched and scalloped plate he used in many of his histories, manipulating the paint surface like a craftsman, working the dense ochers, lead-tin yellow, and lead white on the King's robe and crown into a brilliantly reflective fabric. The turban glitters with iridescent strands of pearly color. Dazzling gemstones - onyx, rubles, and crystals, and especially the large gem at the head of the turban tassel - are built from thickly constructed dabs of pasty paint. But amidst this rush of dense color Rembrandt is also subtle enough to include delicate details like the crescent-moon earring hanging from the royal lobe and highlighted along the edge facing the apparition. Even the fur trim of the King's robe stands on end in the oracular light, as though bristling with providentially generated static.

This electrical effect of solid matter disturbed, of the liquidation of power into spilled wine, the meltdown of literally brazen effrontery, is all the more earthshaking because the dread letters are not written on the plaster of the wall, as specified in the Scripture. Just as he had altered the commonplace rain of cash in the Danae into a shaft of golden light, so Rembrandt has made the prophetic hand of doom, painted with significantly greater smoothness than the hands of the King, emerge from a cloud and inscribe the letters within a nimbus of fiery light. The Sephardic Jewish scholar and publisher Menasseh ben Israel, who also lived on the St. Anthoniesbreestraat, almost certainly supplied the painter with the additionally esoteric effect of having the Hebrew/Aramaic letters read in vertical columns rather than horizontally from right to left. The hand is depicted just before it completes the final letter, thus scaling the fate of the King, who would perish the same night Daniel interpreted for him the meaning of the vision. The hand vanishes into air, and with it the entirety of Belshazzar's worldly dominion.
Simon Schama Biography
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Simon Schama

Simon Michael Schama, CBE (born 13 February 1945) is a British professor of history and art history at Columbia University. His many works on history and art include Landscape and Memory, Dead Certainties, Rembrandt's Eyes, and his history of the French Revolution, Citizens. He is best known for writing and hosting the 15-part BBC documentary series A History of Britain. He was an art and cultural critic for The New Yorker.
The son of second-generation immigrant Jewish parents with roots in Lithuania and Turkey, Schama was born in London in February 1945. In the late 1940s, the family moved to Southen-on-Sea in Essex before moving back to London. Schama writes of this period in the Introduction to Landscape & Memory (pp.3-4):

I had no hill [the previous paragraph had talked of his enthusiasm for Puck of Pook's Hill], but I did have the Thames. It was not the upstream river that the poets in my Palgrave claimed burbled betwixt mossy banks. ... It was the low, gull-swept estuary, the marriage bed of salt and fresh water, stretching as far as I could see from my northern Essex bank, toward a thin black horizon on the other side. That would be Kent, the sinister enemy who always seemed to beat us in the County Cricket Championship. ...

Schama won a scholarship to Haberdasher' Aske's and went on to Christ's College, Cambridge, reading history under J. H. Plumb and graduating with a Starred First in 1966.
He worked for short periods as a lecturer in history at Cambridge, where he became a Fellow and Director of Studies in History, and at Oxford where he was made a Fellow of Brasenose College in 1976, specialising in the French Revolution. At this time, Schama wrote his first book, Patriots and Liberators, which won the Wolfson History Prize. The book was originally intended as a study of the French Revolution, but as published in 1977, it focused on the effect of the Patriot revolution in The Netherlands, and its aftermath.
His second book, Two Rothschilds and the Land of Israel (1978), is a study of the Zionist aims of Edmond James de Rothschild and James Armand de Rothschild.

In 1980 Schama accepted a chair at Harvard. His next book, The Embarrassment of Riches (1987), again focused on Dutch history. In it, Schama interpreted the ambivalences that informed the Dutch Golden Age of the seventeenth century, held in balance between the conflicting imperatives, to live richly and with power, or to live a godly life. The iconographic evidence that Schama draws upon, in 317 illustrations, of emblems and propaganda that defined Dutch character, prefigured his expansion in the 1990s as a commentator on art and visual culture.

Citizens (1989), written at speed to a publisher's commission, finally saw the publication of his long-awaited study of the French revolution, and won the 1990 NCR Book Award. Citizens was very well-received and sold admirably. Its view that the violence of the Terror was inherent from the start of the Revolution, however, has received serious criticism.
In 1991, he published Dead Certainties (Unwarranted Speculations), a relatively slender work which was nevertheless of great importance. It looked at two widely reported deaths a hundred years apart, that of General James Wolfe -- and the famous painting by Benjamin West -- and that of (by murder) George Parkman, brother of the better known Francis Parkman. Schama mooted some possible (invented) connections between the two cases, exploring the historian's inability "ever to reconstruct a dead world in its completeness however thorough or revealing the documentation," and speculatively bridging "the teasing gap separating a lived event and its subsequent narration." Not all readers absorbed the nuance of the title: it received a greatly mixed critical and academic reception. (Australia's Keith Windschuttle, in his The Killing of History, took particular exception to the book's overt fictionalizing). It, apparently, sold poorly, but it is highly valued by some.

Schama's Landscape and Memory (1995) focused on the relationship between physical environment and folk memory, separating the components of landscape as wood, water and rock, enmeshed in the cultural consciousness of collective "memory" that are embodied in myths, which Schama finds to be expressed outwardly in ceremony and text. While in many ways even more personal and idiosyncratic than Dead Certainties, roaming through widening circles of digressions, this book was also more traditionally structured and better-defined in its approach. While many reviews remained decidedly mixed, the book was a definite commercial success and won numerous prizes.

Schama at Strand Bookstore, New York City
Appropriately, many of the plaudits came from the art world rather than from traditional academia. This was borne out when Schama became art critic for The New Yorker in 1995. He held the position for three years, dovetailing his regular column with professorial duties at Columbia University; a selection of his best essays on art for the magazine, chosen by Schama himself, was published in 2005 under the title Hang Ups. During this time, Schama also produced a lavishly illustrated Rembrandt's Eyes, another critical and commercial success. Despite the focus of the book's title, it contrasts the biographies of Rembrandt van Rijn and Peter Paul Rubens.
"It is both a physical and intellectual impossibility,
not to have paired two prolific giants of the art and
literary world together, on this blog. With much honor
and reverence and dedication: Rembrandt van Rijn and
Simon Schama two greats of the fine arts."
~ Art Diva of

The Care and Conservation of Oil Paintings

Claude Monet
b. 1840 d. 1926 France
The Sunflowers

Throughout the years I have been asked many questions on the care and handling of oil paintings. I have included two comprehensive sources for your reference on the subject. The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (ACI) article "Caring for Your Paintings" and The Henry Ford, Chief Conservatory Paintings, Mary Fahey. Other valuable resources, and references on the subject of oil paintings, are also listed. If you have questions in regard to the care and handling of oil paintings, I am at your service to answer your questions.

~ Art Diva of


Paintings may be objects of great beauty or of historical importance, providing an important cultural link with the past. They may have great monetary value or have sentimental value to their owners. Whatever the case, paintings are fragile creations that require special care to assure their continued preservation.Paintings consist of various layers. The paint is applied to a support, typically canvas or wood, which is first primed with a glue-sizing and/or ground layer. Traditional paintings are finished with a coat of varnish. Contemporary paintings, naive, or folk art may not have a ground layer or varnish coating. Paintings that do not have all of the traditional layers may be more fragile and susceptible to change or damage. The paint layers can be made of pigments in oil, acrylic (or other synthetics), encaustic (wax), tempera (egg), distemper (glue), casein (milk), gouache (plant gum), or a mixture of media. The paint can be applied on a wide variety of supports. Although the most common are canvas and wood, other supports include paper, cardboard, pressed board, artist's board, copper, ivory, glass, plaster, and stone. Paintings on canvas are usually stretched over an auxiliary wood support. An adjustable support is called a stretcher; a support with fixed corners is called a strainer.

Paintings change over time. Some inevitable results of aging, such as increased transparency of oil paint or the appearance of certain types of cracks, do not threaten the stability of a painting and may not always be considered damage. One of the most common signs of age is a darkened or yellowed surface caused by accumulated grime or discolored varnish. When a varnish becomes so discolored that it obscures the artist's intended colors and the balance of lights and darks, it usually can be removed by a conservator, but some evidence of aging is to be expected and should be accepted. However, when structural damages occur in a painting such as tears, flaking paint, cracks with lifting edges, or mold, consult a conservator to decide on a future course of treatment for your painting.


It is important to maintain a proper environment for your paintings. The structural components of a painting expand and contract in different ways as the surrounding temperature and humidity fluctuate. For example, the flexible canvas may become slack or taut in a changing environment, while the more brittle paint may crack, curl, or loosen its attachment to the underlying layers. If a painting could be maintained in an optimum environment, in one location at a constant temperature and humidity level, many of the problems requiring the services of a paintings conservator could be prevented. Paintings generally do well in environmental conditions that are comfortable for people, with relative humidity levels between 40 and 60 percent. Environmental guidelines have been developed for different types of materials. Paintings on canvas may react more quickly to rising and falling humidity levels than paintings on wood panels, but the dimensional changes that can occur in a wood panel can cause more structural damage. Owners of panel paintings should be particularly conscientious about avoiding unusually low or high relative humidity and temperatures to prevent warping, splitting, or breaking of the wood. Museums strive to maintain constant temperature and humidity levels for works of art, but even with expensive environmental control systems this task can be difficult. In most cases, gradual seasonal changes and small fluctuations are less harmful than large environmental fluctuations. Avoiding large fluctuations is very important. For example, a painting stored in what would generally be considered poor conditions (such as a cold, damp castle in England) may remain structurally secure for centuries, but begin to deteriorate rapidly if moved into "stable" museum conditions simply because of the extreme change in its environment.

One of the simplest and most important preservation steps you can take is have protective backing board attached to paintings. A Fome-Cor (or archival cardboard backing) screwed to the reverse of a painting will slow environmental exchange through a canvas, keep out dust and foreign objects, and protect against damage during handling. Be sure that the backing board covers the entire back of the picture; do not leave air vent holes, which can cause localized environmental conditions and lead to cracks in paint. The backing board should be attached to the reverse of the stretcher or strainer, not to the frame. Have a conservator or reputable framer attach it for you.


The display of paintings requires careful consideration. Direct sunlight can cause fading of certain pigments, increased yellowing of varnish, and excessive heat on the painting surface. It is best to exhibit paintings on dividing walls within a building rather than on perimeter walls where temperature fluctuations will be greater and condensation can occur. If paintings are placed on uninsulated exterior walls, it may help to place small rubber spacers on the back of the frame to increase air circulation.

Although a fireplace is often a focal spot for a room, a painting displayed above a mantel will be exposed to soot, heat, and environmental extremes. Hanging paintings above heating and air conditioning vents or in bathrooms with tubs or showers is also inadvisable because the rapid environmental fluctuations will be harmful. Select a safe place away from high traffic and seating areas.

When lighting paintings, use indirect lighting. Lights that attach to the top of the frame and hang over the picture can be dangerous. These lights cast a harsh glare, illuminate and heat the painting unevenly, and can fall into the artwork causing burns or tears. Indirect sunlight, recessed lighting, or ceiling-mounted spotlights are best for home installations. Halogen lamps are increasingly popular, but halogen bulbs emit high levels of ultraviolet light (the part of the spectrum that is damaging to artworks) and should be fitted with an ultraviolet filter when used near light-sensitive materials. These bulbs also have been known to explode and may pose a fire hazard. Tungsten lamps may be preferable for home lighting.


Pictures are usually safest when hanging on a wall, provided that they are well framed, with the picture and hanging hardware adequately secured. If you must store a painting, avoid damp basements or garages, where pictures can mold, and attics, which are very hot in the summer. A good storage method is to place the paintings in a closet with a stiff board protecting the image side of each artwork and a backing board attached to the reverse. Here again, a backing board attached to the reverse can protect your painting.
Do not risk damaging your paintings by moving them any more than is absolutely necessary. If you must remove a painting from the wall or move it to another room, clear the pathway of furniture and obstructions and prepare a location to receive it. The frame must be stable and secure. If it is old or there is glazing (glass), ensure that it can withstand being moved. Determine if you can lift the painting safely by yourself. If the frame is massive or the picture is wider than your shoulders, ask someone to help you. If the painting is of a manageable size, lift the frame with both hands by placing one hand in the center of each side. Always carry it with the image side facing you. Remove jewelry, tie clips, belt buckles, or other clothing that might scrape the surface. Hang paintings from picture hooks (not nails) placed securely in the wall; a heavy picture requires two hooks. Before hanging, examine the back of the painting to ensure that the hanging hardware is strong and secure. If the painting is framed, the hardware should be attached to the back of the frame, not to the stretcher or strainer. If picture wire is used, attach a double strand of braided wire to the sides of the frame (not to the top edge) with "D" rings or mirror plate hangers (see diagram). These types of hangers are secured to the wooden frame with two to four screws. Hanging can be more complicated with contemporary paintings that do not have protective frames. Moving and hanging unframed or large paintings safely may require the services of professional art handlers, who may be reached by calling a local museum, historical society, or reputable art gallery.


If you intend to buy a new frame for a painting or have a painting treated by a conservator, take the opportunity to have it properly framed. Ideally, a painting should be held in the frame with mending plates that are attached to the frame with screws. Brass mending plates can be bent and adjusted so there is light pressure on the back of the stretcher or strainer. Sometimes nails are used to frame paintings, but nails can rust, fall out, or protrude through the canvas. Ask the framer or conservator to pad the rabbet, the part of the frame that touches the face of the painting, with felt or another suitable material to protect the image.


After carefully examining your paintings for loose or flaking paint, dust them every four to six months. Feather dusters can scratch paintings. Instead use soft, white-bristle Japanese brushes, sable (such as a typical makeup brush), or badger-hair brushes (called "blenders" and used for faux finishes). Never try to clean a painting yourself or use any liquid or commercial cleaners on a painted surface. Commercial preparations can cause irreparable damage to the fragile layers of a painting. Avoid using pesticides, foggers, air fresheners, or furniture sprays near artworks. Remove paintings from a room before painting, plastering, or steam cleaning carpets or wallpaper. Return the artworks only when the walls and floors are completely dry.


If a disaster such as a flood or fire occurs in your home, remove paintings from standing water or debris. If the paint is flaking, lay the painting flat with the image side up to limit paint loss. Consult a professional conservator as soon as possible for assistance in limiting damage to your artwork. Wiping smoke, mud, or other contaminants from a painting may result in additional damage. An information packet on disaster recovery is available from the American Institute for Conservation.
Other problems will require the help of a professional conservator. Insect infestation, flaking paint, paint loss, torn canvas, cracks with lifting edges or planar distortions (wrinkles or draws in the canvas), mold growth, grime, or very discolored varnish are problems that only a professional conservator is trained to address.


Schultz, Arthur W., ed. Caring for Your Collections. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1992.
Stout, George L. The Care of Pictures. New York: Dover Publications, 1975.
This brochure is provided courtesy of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC), the national membership organization of conservation professionals dedicated to preserving the art and historic artifacts of our cultural heritage for future generations. Among other services of the AIC is the Guide to Conservation Services, which provides a free list of conservators in your geographic region. The AIC brochure Guidelines for Selecting a Conservator, will help you make an informed choice.

The recommendations in this brochure are intended as guidance only, and AIC does not assume responsibility or liability.

Mary Fahey, Head of Preservation/Chief Conservator, The Henry Ford

Oil paintings can be maintained for years of use and enjoyment provided that some basic care and attention is given to their preservation. The conservation staff at The Henry Ford have compiled the information in this fact sheet to help individuals care for their objects and collections. The first step in the care of collections is to understand and minimize or eliminate conditions that can cause damage. The second step is to follow basic guidelines for care, handling and cleaning.

Causes of Damage and Guidelines for Care
Light Levels
Temperature and Humidity Levels
Improper Cleaning
Careless Handling


The primary cause of damage to oil paintings is the storage or display of paintings in inappropriate environments. This includes display or storage in areas where there is excessive exposure to light, high and/or fluctuating temperature and humidity levels, dirt or insects. Damage can also be caused by careless handling and the improper cleaning of paintings.


Excessively high light levels can cause the fading and/or darkening of paintings. Some paintings darken so severely that the painting and its details are no longer visible. In order to avoid damage caused by light, paintings should be displayed in dim areas where no direct sunlight is allowed to fall on them. The suggested light level for paintings is 200 lux. Light levels can be measured using the light meter in a 35mm camera
(see CCI ICC NOTES 2/5 listed in Bibliography).
High light levels also can cause damage due to excessive heat build up. The use of lights that are positioned close to the paintings such as the commercially available lights that are mounted to the frame or directly above it should be avoided. Diffused spotlights should be mounted at least 10 feet from the painting to avoid potentially damaging heat buildup.


Extremes and fluctuations in temperature and humidity can cause damage to paintings due to the expansion and contraction of the wood and fabric components of the painting. Wood and fabric absorb moisture which causes them to swell on humid days and conversely shrink on dry days. Paint, however, is not as resilient and can crack and flake off as a result of expansion and contraction of the underlying wood and fabric structure. These dimensional changes can cause the canvas to become slack and sag during the winter months. Most fabric paintings are secured to a wooden frame that is commonly referred to as a stretcher or strainer. Stretchers are equipped with expandable corner joints that can be adjusted to insure that the painting remains taught. The joints can be expanded by driving small wooden wedges into the interior corners of the stretcher at the back of the painting. This procedure is commonly referred to as "keying out" a painting. Paintings should not be keyed out during the winter months when the humidity is low. The increased tension caused by keying out may cause the painting to tear as the wooden stretcher expands during the humid spring and summer months.The proper display and storage of paintings can be achieved by monitoring the environment in various rooms in order to identify the best area for display or storage of paintings. Acceptable temperature and humidity levels for paintings are as follows, keeping in mind that fluctuations should be kept to a minimum.
Temperature 65-70 degrees FRelative Humidity 40%-45%
Temperature 70-75 degrees FRelative Humidity 45-55%
Inexpensive temperature and humidity sensors can be purchased from conservation suppliers. While precise control of temperature and humidity is desirable, it is not always practical in homes. Therefore, damage should be minimized by avoiding extremes in temperature and humidity. This can be done by insuring that paintings are kept away from heat sources such as furnace vents, fire places, warm lights and direct sunlight.Excessive humidity, as can be found in most basements, should also be avoided since it can cause mold growth that can stain the surface of the painting.


Aside from the unsightly appearance of dirt on a painting, dirt also serves as a host for mold growth and the absorption of pollutants and moisture onto the surface of a painting. All of these can cause damage that obscures the image of the painting.Paintings should not be displayed in smoking areas or in close proximity to candles or fireplaces which can deposit nicotine and soot onto the surface of the painting.


In general, the cleaning of paintings should be left in the hands of a trained conservator. However, there are some simple procedures that can be followed to increase the longevity of a painting. Soft brushes can be used to remove surface dirt from paintings and frames. When dusting an oil painting care should be taken not to flex the canvas or to dislodge paint chips by bumping the painting. Paintings that have loose flaking paint should not be dusted as fragments of paint could be dislodged and swept away. The back of the painting should be kept clean by brushing or vacuuming. In order to clean the back, the painting should be removed from its picture frame and placed face down on a clean surface. Excessive dirt should be vacuumed using a small low suction nozzle with a brush attachment. Proper framing with a dust cover on the back of the painting will prevent dirt from accumulating behind the painting. Holiday decorating in a manner that will cause damage to paintings should also be avoided. Live greens and berries can stain and damage frames and paintings. They also introduce pests into the environment.If surface dirt cannot be removed by dusting, cotton swabs that have been dampened with distilled water can be lightly rolled on the surface to remove dirt. Again, if there is flaking paint no attempt at cleaning should be made.


Insects that can cause damage to oil paintings include carpet beetles and powder post beetles.Carpet beetles generally subsist on protein-based materials that may be included as a sizing material on canvas paintings. Insects are most often are found at the back of the painting between the canvas and stretcher. Holes in the canvas, or the presence of worm-like insects or furry carcasses are an indication of carpet beetle problems.
Powder post beetles characteristically bore small holes (approx. 2mm in diameter) into wooden materials. These holes are generally the first visible evidence of powder post beetle infestation. Frass, a substance that looks like saw dust, is also a good indication of an active infestation. Paintings should be routinely taken down and examined for pests. If evidence of infestation is found, the object should be placed in a plastic bag and isolated until it can be examined by a professional conservator.


The greatest amount of damage to artifacts is caused by careless handling. Prior to moving a painting, be sure to remove all jewelry, belt buckles, etc. so that the painting is not accidentally torn or scratched while being moved. When moving a painting, always be sure to grasp the painting from both vertical sides. Do not hold a painting at the top of the frame or by its hanging wire. Also be careful to insure that the picture wire does not puncture the back of the painting during the move. It is important to avoid bumping canvas paintings as even the slightest bump can cause future cracking of the paint surface.

Further information on the care of paintings can be found in conservation literature listed in the attached bibliography.

A Handbook on the Care of Paintings Caroline Keck. Watson-Guptill Publications 1965Conservation and Restoration of Works of Art and Antiquities Volume I. Herman Kuhn. Butterworths, London 1986Conservation and Exhibitions. Nathan Stolow. Butterworths, London 1987 ICC CII NotesThe Canadian Conservation InstituteNotes 10/8, 10/9, 10/12, 10/1, 10/2, 10/3, 10/4, 2/5 1030 Innes RoadOttawa , Canada613-998-3721(Good reference s for care and framing; accompanied by good illustrations) The Museum Guide to Pest Control. Zycherman, Schrock. Foundation of the American Institute of Conservation 1988Art Objects their Care and Preservation. Freida Kay Fall. Lawrence McGilvery Co. 1973Dirt and Pictures Separated. United Kingdom Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. Papers given at the Tate Gallery. January 1990Conservation of Paintings and Graphic Arts. International Institute for the Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works Preprints of Lisbon Conference. 1972.

Framing Materials, Brushes, Humidity IndicatorsUniversity Products 517 Main Street PO Box 101 Holyoke , MA 800-762-1165

Light Impressions, Inc. PO Box 2376 Brea , CA 92822-2376 (800) 828-6216 (800) 828-5539

For a listing of conservators in your area, please contact:
The American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works1717 K Street NWSuite 301Washington, DC 20006(202) 452-9545

The recommendations on this blog are intended as guidance only and blogger: Art Diva of, and Paintings To Go, Inc. do not assume responsibility or liability.